Archive for December, 2012

Where New Words Come From

Thursday, December 27th, 2012

New words each day enter the English language from various sources, some being outside the dominant culture or people of the language. There are two types of new words that can enter a language, neologisms and neosemanticisms (Alego 2). These two kinds of words can be differentiated by their route of formation and how they become incorporated in the language. Neologism refers to earlier types of words; most of them were made before the twentieth century and mainly contain Greek and Latin elements. These words translate literally to their meaning in the core language; examples of such words are common in science and technology domains. New words are in most cases whole words or phrases borrowed from their sources and accepted by the dominant culture of the language. Not all words use this route; there are other formulas of formation. A telling example of words formed through this mechanism is Nanomachine, which refers to machines of molecular level size. Nano is a Greek word referring to the smallest unit of measure (Alego 2).
Neosemanticisms refers to words or group of words, which are already in the language, but acquire new meaning and uses. This may arise due to developments in science and technology, which affect the people and culture, and in-turn, make the words to acquire new meaning in new situations (Snoj 304). This implies that such words are not new, but are transformed by their new meanings. There are words that may appear new because the dominant culture is not familiar with them; this is especially common in a situation where these words originate from a subculture.
New words can also be formed by writers and speakers of the majority culture or group, and then accepted by other users, either through the print media, colloquial domain, or nowadays through the internet. The adoption of words through the internet is more common in the twenty first century than through the print media. For example, words like “LoL” are in use in the social media, but hardly in print media. This reflects on the ability of language to grow especially if such language is common in various domains (Alego, 52). For example, the English language is an official language in many areas such as science, technology, and the internet. As these domains grow and transform, the language also needs to grow in order to express the new ideas and objects. For example, social media platforms have recently experienced growth and expansion on the internet and new terms such as Facebook and facebookable have emerged.
New words become part of a language in a remarkably straightforward way, mainly through their increased usage by a couple of speakers. This concept is new, and it is not like the old system where new words would find their way into the dictionary before becoming common in the speaking domain. This concept is applicable in languages that do not have much control; for example, the non-standard or the London Street English. With time, these words could still find their way to the Standard English once their uses become widespread (Alego 52). There are various mechanisms through which words come into being, below is a summary of these mechanism and examples of such words.
Borrowing refers to the interaction between different cultures with different languages, which leads to the formation of new words. Most of the English words have their origins from the Latin language as a result of Normany’s occupancy in the land of Britain many years ago. In this modern era of language acquisitiveness, English has borrowed its vocabulary even farther afield. Ranging from the times of Renaissance voyages, through the days and nights when British Empire ruled the world and up to present, there has been a stream flow of new words into the language to express new objects and experiences (Kilgarriff and Evans 34). Other languages that have influenced the English vocabulary include Catalan with words like capsize, Afrikaans, Breton, Congo, and Nepali with words like apartheid, billiards, funky, and panda respectively.
Clipping, which is also referred to as truncation, is the process where an appreciable chunk of a word is dropped to create a new word; this new word is the stump word of the original term. Longer words are often reduced into one syllable; for example, examination can be truncated to exam while lab would refer to laboratory. Most of the truncated words are informal or slang and are common in street usage; examples of such slang words include “maxing” from “maximizing” and “bro” from “brother”.

The internet and the social platform are the main source of these words. In the process when the end of the word is lopped off, the process becomes back-clipping; for example, “gymnasium” to create “gym”. Fore-clipping though not common like back clipping also has some examples; for instance, phone from telephone (Kilgarriff and Evans 34). There are also cases of fore-and-after clipping of words, which also create new words. A telling example of this clipping is the word “flu” that derived from “influenza”
Etymologists are specialists who trace the history of words and how they became accepted in a language. They review existing entries and prepare such etymologies as per the requirements in the new editions. In the course of their work, they may include adjustments to incorporate useful information from new revelation or omissions. To provide this information for new words and terms, etymologists need to live where the language is used, learn, or search for all relevant information regarding the language from the community (Snoj 306). The minds of these etymologists must be free from theories especially conflicting theories or less likelihood information, which may influence the value of their work. This will enable them to evaluate the evidence conservatively and synthesize the soundest possible etymology possible with the available evidence. Etymologies are beneficial in supporting the validation of words before their entry and acceptance in colloquial speech.
In conclusion, words have different sources from which they come into being. Some of these sources have been in use for years while others are new and emerge from changes and advances in technology. While some sources are losing their effectiveness in word formation, others are gaining more momentum in the field; soon, they will become the main sources of new words. The entry of new words into the colloquial domain is mainly controlled by usage rather than regulation by lexicographers (Snoj 306). New words only need to be used by few people before they find their way into prominent dictionaries and become accepted. The internet and social platforms are increasingly becoming common sources and origin of words. While some of these words follow the traditional formulation mechanism, some originate from creative coinages from the youth.

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Resume cover letter guide

Wednesday, December 19th, 2012

A resume cover letter guide is that manual which will help you accomplish the task. You will find a lot of useful tips there, as well as explanations of how to write the paper in accordance with this or that resume format. What is more, you will also learn more about the essential parts of every cover letter. The only problem is that such guide won’t write this paper for you. That is the task you are supposed to complete on your own. Obviously, that is not the thing you wish to be busy with right now. However, it seems like you don’t have any other choice.

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Write my resume

Friday, December 7th, 2012

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